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一行导出所有任意微软SQL server数据脚本-基于Python的微软官方mssql-scripter工具使用全讲解


作者: 发布时间:2020-03-30 来源:佚名 点击数:


文章标题: 一行导出所有任意微软SQL server数据脚本-基于Python的微软官方mssql-scripter工具使用全讲解
关键字 : mssql-scripter,SQL Server
文章分类: 技术分享

创建时间: 2020年3月30日

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什么是mssql-scripter

一款由微软官方发布的数据库管理工具,可以通过命令行,直接生成SQL脚本。

在实际开发中,如果想提高数据库生成效率,则用它能事半功倍。

如果你语言足够熟悉,当然也可以用sqlcms、dotNETcore、Powershell工具在微软平台,快速的对数据库进行各类建模,而这款工具则提供了另一种跨平台的可能。

让我们看下官方的介绍:

我们很高兴推出mssql-scripter,这是一种用于编写SQL Server数据库脚本的多平台命令行体验。

mssql-scripter是等同于SSMS中广泛使用的“生成脚本向导”经验的多平台命令行。您可以在Linux,macOS和Windows上使用mssql-scripter为在任何地方运行的SQL Server,Azure SQL数据库和Azure SQL数据仓库中的数据库对象生成数据定义语言(DDL)和数据操作语言(DML)T-SQL脚本。您可以将生成的T-SQL脚本保存到.sql文件,或将其通过管道传输到标准nix实用程序(例如sed,awk,grep)以进行进一步的转换。您可以编辑生成的脚本或将其检入源代码管理,然后使用标准的多平台SQL命令行工具(如sqlcmd)在现有SQL数据库部署过程和DevOps管道中执行脚本。

mssql-scripter使用Python构建,并结合了新的Azure CLI 2.0工具的可用性原则。

官方Github库:https://github.com/microsoft/mssql-scripter

截止本文写作时,版本号:1.0.0a23

有何特色

  • 它是跨平台的
  • 它是基于python的(虽然python最近炒得很热,其实微软的powershell和.netcore也有很多超凡之处,只是微软为python提供了一种操作可能,展现了巨硬团队在跨平台方面的实力。
  • 它更精简
  • 它能集成在环境变量。

应用场景

除了普通开发的、部署外,还可以用于CI/CD持续部署,亦即自动化部署。

如何安装

首先是安装python

安装Python,最新安装包下载地址:https://www.python.org/downloads/,注意安装的时候要选择”Add Python to PATH”选项:

安装有一些选项,用默认就可以了,以下为相关选项说明:

  • nstall for all users 所有用户可使用
  • Associate files with Python 关联PY相关的文件
  • Create shortcuts for installed applications 创建桌面的快捷方式
  • Add Python to environment variables 添加系统变量(windows系统)
  • Precompile standard library 安装预编译标准库
  • Download debugging symbols 安装调试模块(开发者可选择,运用于开发环境)
  • Download debug binaries安装用于VS的调试符号(二进制),如果不使用VS作为开发工具,则不用勾选(支持VS2015以上),适用于.NET开发。

b) 安装mssql-scripter,命令行里执行下面命令:

pip install mssql-scripter

在Linux安装

a) 检查pip版本,是否是9.0及其以上:

pip –version

b) 如果pip未安装或者版本低于9.0,使用如下命令安装以及升级版本:

sudo apt-get install python-pip
sudo pip install --upgrade pip

c) 安装mssql-scripter:

sudo pip install mssql-scripter

如果系统是Ubuntu或者Debian,需要安装libunwind8软件包:

Ubuntu 14 & 17
执行如下命令:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libunwind8

Debian 8(无实测环境,仅官方文档)
文件‘/etc/apt/sources.list’需要更新:

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main
执行如下命令:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libunwind8

macOS(无实测环境,仅官方文档)

a) 检查pip版本,是否是9.0及其以上:

pip –version

b) 如果pip未安装或者版本低于9.0,使用如下命令安装以及升级版本:

sudo apt-get install python-pip
sudo pip install --upgrade pip

c) 安装mssql-scripter:

sudo pip install mssql-scripter

使用示例

经典的导出全库

# 微软官方示例
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --schema-and-data  > ./adventureworks.sql
# 实际用例
mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data --display-progress > ./adventureworks3.sql

显示进度导出脚本

mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data --exclude-use-database --display-progress > ./adventureworks3.sql

显示进度不带use数据库,排除ZL_Node表,其它全生成

mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data  --exclude-objects ZL_Node --exclude-use-database --display-progress > ./adventureworks4.sql

显示进度不带use数据库,仅生成ZL_Node表

mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data  --include-objects ZL_Node --exclude-use-database --display-progress > ./adventureworksA.sql

显示进度不带use数据库,生成ZL_Node,ZL_User两张表

mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data  --include-objects ZL_Node ZL_User  --exclude-use-database --display-progress > ./adventureworksB.sql

显示进度不带use数据库,生成ZL_Node,ZL_User,ZL_CommonModel三张表,包含删除旧表建新以及插入数据脚本

mssql-scripter -S 192.168.1.4 -d ZoomlaCMS -U ZoomlaDB_user -P 数据库密码 --schema-and-data  --include-objects ZL_Node ZL_User ZL_CommonModel --exclude-use-database --script-drop-create --display-progress > ./adventureworksB.sql

一些有用的参数

--file-per-object默认情况下,脚本是单个文件。如果提供并且给--file-path目录,每个脚本该目录的对象。
--data-only默认情况下,仅对架构进行脚本编写。如果提供,生成仅包含数据的脚本。
--schema-and-data默认情况下,仅对模式进行脚本编写。如果提供,生成包含架构和数据的脚本。
--script-create脚本对象CREATE语句。
--script-drop脚本对象DROP语句。
--script-drop-create脚本对象CREATE和DROP语句。

-exclude-use-database
不生成USE DATABASE语句。

--data-compressions编写数据压缩信息脚本。

--display-progress显示脚本编制进度

作为变量使用

喜欢极简的你,一定嫌写数据库名和密码这些太复杂,没问题,微软爸爸想到了,你还可以将这些作为变量写到系统中。

可以把连接字符串设置成环境变量:

# set environment variable MSSQL_SCRIPTER_CONNECTION_STRING with a connection string.
export MSSQL_SCRIPTER_CONNECTION_STRING='Server=myserver;Database=mydb;User Id=myuser;Password=mypassword;'
mssql-scripter 

# set environment variable MSSQL_SCRIPTER_PASSWORD so no password input is required.
export MSSQL_SCRIPTER_PASSWORD='ABC123'
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa

微软团队官方使用说明(英文)

Usage Guide

Contents:

Options

Examples

Environment Variables

Description

mssql-scripter is the multiplatform command line equivalent of the widely used Generate Scripts Wizard experience in SSMS.

You can use mssql-scripter on Linux, macOS, and Windows to generate data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) T-SQL scripts for database objects in SQL Server running anywhere, Azure SQL Database, and Azure SQL Data Warehouse. You can save the generated T-SQL script to a .sql file or pipe it to standard *nix utilities (for example, sed, awk, grep) for further transformations. You can edit the generated script or check it into source control and subsequently execute the script in your existing SQL database deployment processes and DevOps pipelines with standard multiplatform SQL command line tools such as sqlcmd.

Options

For option parameters, pass in ‘-h’:

$ mssql-scripter -h
usage: mssql-scripter [-h] [--connection-string  | -S ] [-d] [-U] [-P] [-f]
                  [--file-per-object] [--data-only | --schema-and-data]
                  [--script-create | --script-drop | --script-drop-create]
                  [--target-server-version {2005,2008,2008R2,2012,2014,2016,vNext,AzureDB,AzureDW}]
                  [--target-server-edition {Standard,Personal,Express,Enterprise,Stretch}]
                  [--include-objects [[...]]] [--exclude-objects [[...]]]
                  [--include-schemas [[...]]] [--exclude-schemas [[...]]]
                  [--include-types [[...]]] [--exclude-types [[...]]]
                  [--ansi-padding] [--append] [--check-for-existence] [-r]
                  [--convert-uddts] [--include-dependencies]
                  [--exclude-headers] [--constraint-names]
                  [--unsupported-statements]
                  [--disable-schema-qualification] [--bindings]
                  [--collation] [--exclude-defaults]
                  [--exclude-extended-properties] [--logins]
                  [--object-permissions] [--owner]
                  [--exclude-use-database] [--statistics]
                  [--change-tracking] [--exclude-check-constraints]
                  [--data-compressions] [--exclude-foreign-keys]
                  [--exclude-full-text-indexes] [--exclude-indexes]
                  [--exclude-primary-keys] [--exclude-triggers]
                  [--exclude-unique-keys] [--display-progress]
                  [--enable-toolsservice-logging] [--version]

Microsoft SQL Server Scripter Command Line Tool. Version 1.0.0a14

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --connection-string   Connection string of database to script. If connection
                        string and server are not supplied, defaults to value
                        in environment variable
                        MSSQL_SCRIPTER_CONNECTION_STRING.
  -S , --server         Server name.
  -d , --database       Database name.
  -U , --user           Login ID for server.
  -P , --password       If not supplied, defaults to value in environment
                        variable MSSQL_SCRIPTER_PASSWORD.
  -f , --file-path      File to script out to or directory name if scripting
                        file per object.
  --file-per-object     By default script to a single file. If supplied and
                        given a directory for --file-path, script a file per
                        object to that directory.
  --data-only           By default only the schema is scripted. if supplied,
                        generate scripts that contains data only.
  --schema-and-data     By default only the schema is scripted. if supplied,
                        generate scripts that contain schema and data.
  --script-create       Script object CREATE statements.
  --script-drop         Script object DROP statements.
  --script-drop-create  Script object CREATE and DROP statements.
  --target-server-version {2005,2008,2008R2,2012,2014,2016,vNext,AzureDB,AzureDW}
                        Script only features compatible with the specified SQL
                        Version.
  --target-server-edition {Standard,Personal,Express,Enterprise,Stretch}
                        Script only features compatible with the specified SQL
                        Server database edition.
  --include-objects [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects to include in script.
  --exclude-objects [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects to exclude from script.
  --include-schemas [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects of this schema to include in script.
  --exclude-schemas [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects of this schema to exclude from
                        script.
  --include-types [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects of this type to include in script.
  --exclude-types [ [ ...]]
                        Database objects of this type to exclude from script.
  --ansi-padding        Generates ANSI Padding statements.
  --append              Append script to file.
  --check-for-existence
                        Check that an object with the given name exists before
                        dropping or altering or that an object with the given
                        name does not exist before creating.
  -r, --continue-on-error
                        Continue scripting on error.
  --convert-uddts       Convert user-defined data types to base types.
  --include-dependencies
                        Generate script for the dependent objects for each
                        object scripted.
  --exclude-headers     Exclude descriptive headers for each object scripted.
  --constraint-names    Include system constraint names to enforce declarative
                        referential integrity.
  --unsupported-statements
                        Include statements in the script that are not
                        supported on the target SQL Server Version.
  --disable-schema-qualification
                        Do not prefix object names with the object schema.
  --bindings            Script options to set binding options.
  --collation           Script the objects that use collation.
  --exclude-defaults    Do not script the default values.
  --exclude-extended-properties
                        Exclude extended properties for each object scripted.
  --logins              Script all logins available on the server, passwords
                        will not be scripted.
  --object-permissions  Generate object-level permissions.
  --owner               Script owner for the objects.
  --exclude-use-database
                        Do not generate USE DATABASE statement.
  --statistics          Script all statistics.
  --change-tracking     Script the change tracking information.
  --exclude-check-constraints
                        Exclude check constraints for each table or view
                        scripted.
  --data-compressions   Script the data compression information.
  --exclude-foreign-keys
                        Exclude foreign keys for each table scripted.
  --exclude-full-text-indexes
                        Exclude full-text indexes for each table or indexed
                        view scripted.
  --exclude-indexes     Exclude indexes (XML and clustered) for each table or
                        indexed view scripted.
  --exclude-primary-keys
                        Exclude primary keys for each table or view scripted.
  --exclude-triggers    Exclude triggers for each table or view scripted.
  --exclude-unique-keys
                        Exclude unique keys for each table or view scripted.
  --display-progress    Display scripting progress.
  --enable-toolsservice-logging
                        Enable verbose logging.
  --version             show program's version number and exit

Examples

Below are example commands that run against the AdventureWorks database. Here is the list of examples:

Dump datbase object schema

Dump datbase object data

Dump database object schema and data

Include database objects

Exclude database objects

Target server version

Target server edition

Pipe a generated script to sed

Script data to a file

Dump database object schema

# generate DDL scripts for all objects in the Adventureworks database and save the script to a file
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa

# alternatively, specify the schema only flag to generate DDL scripts for all objects in the Adventureworks database and save the script to a file
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa -f ./adventureworks.sql

Dump database object data

# generate DDL scripts for all objects in the Adventureworks database and save the script to stdout.
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --data-only

Dump the database object schema and data

# script the database schema and data piped to a file.
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --schema-and-data  > ./adventureworks.sql

# execute the generated above script with sqlcmd
sqlcmd -S mytestserver -U sa -i ./adventureworks.sql

Include database objects

# generate DDL scripts for objects that contain 'Employee' in their name to stdout
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --include-objects Employee

# generate DDL scripts for the dbo schema and pipe the output to a file
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --include-objects dbo. > ./dboschema.sql

Exclude database objects

# generate DDL scripts for objects that do not contain 'Sale' in their name to stdout
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --exclude-objects Sale

Target server version

# specify the version of SQL Server the script will be run against
mssql-scripter -S myServer -d AdventureWorks -U myUser –-target-server-version "AzureDB" > myData.sql

Target server edition

# specify the edition of SQL Server the script will be run against
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U myUser –-target-server-edition "Enterprise" > myData.sql

Pipe a generated script to sed

Note this example is for Linux and macOS usage.

# change a schema name in the generated DDL script
# 1) generate DDL scripts for all objects in the Adventureworks database
# 2) pipe generated script to sed and change all occurrences of SalesLT to SalesLT_test and save the script to a file
$ mssql-scripter -S localhost -d Adventureworks -U sa | sed -e "s/SalesLT./SalesLT_test./g" > adventureworks_SalesLT_test.sql 

Script data to a file

# script all the data to a file.
mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa --data-only > ./adventureworks-data.sql 

Environment Variables

You can set environment variables for your connection string through the following steps:

# set environment variable MSSQL_SCRIPTER_CONNECTION_STRING with a connection string.
$ export MSSQL_SCRIPTER_CONNECTION_STRING='Server=myserver;Database=mydb;User Id=myuser;Password=mypassword;'
$ mssql-scripter

# set environment variable MSSQL_SCRIPTER_PASSWORD so no password input is required.
$ export MSSQL_SCRIPTER_PASSWORD='ABC123'
$ mssql-scripter -S localhost -d AdventureWorks -U sa
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